Analytical Toxicology 

Toxicité des substances chimiques, Analyse Toxicologique.

Contribuer à l'amélioration du contenu de ce site.

Drugs Toxicity

Hydroxychloroquine HCQ

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), is an aminoquinoline used for the prevention and treatment of uncomplicated malaria (caused by P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, or P. vivax) in areas where malaria is vulnerable to chloroquine. Other applications may include the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and porphyria cutanea tarda. It is taken by mouth. HCQ is being… read more »

PS1 – Data Visualization

This article is Chapter I from the author’s book Statistics and Probability Flashcards. Definitions Individuals and variables In a dataset, the individuals are the items with one or more properties, called variables. Individuals can be events, cases, objects, people, etc. Student (individuals) Height (variables) John 190 cm Ali 175 cm Paul 165 cm Clara 160… read more »

Drugs Identification in Urine, Bile and Gastric Contents using Thin Layer Chromatography in Multiple Screening Systems

A method of simultaneous identification of 25 molecules in human urine, bile and gastric contents using liquid-liquid extraction followed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using multiple screening systems is described. The analytes were extracted at 25°C under isocratic conditions using chloroform after acidification with 1 to 2 drops of HCl 6 N for 10 mL of… read more »

Salicylic Acid

Dermatological Agent, Analgesic Synonyms. Acido Ortóxibenzoico; Acidum Salicylicum; Salizylsäure. Proprietary names. It is an ingredient of many proprietary preparations—see Martindale, The complete drug reference, 33rd Edn, London, Pharmaceutical Press, 2002. 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid C7H6O3=138.1 CAS—69–72–7 Colourless, feathery crystals or a white crystalline powder. M.p. 159°. Soluble 1 in about 550 of water, 1 in about 4… read more »

Capillary Electrophoresis for Drug Analysis

In the second edition (1986) of this reference work, the index doesn’t even mention electrophoresis. Traditional electrophoretic methodologies, although they used simple and reliable equipment, were always limited by their low resolution of analytes, low throughput, the need to visualise the separated bands and the qualitative nature of the results. They were, in fact, the… read more »

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

The ability to separate and analyse complex samples is integral to the biological and medical sciences. Classic column chromatography has evolved over the years, with chromatographic innovations introduced at roughly decade intervals. These techniques offered major improvements in speed, resolving power, detection, quantification, convenience and applicability to new sample types. The most notable of these… read more »

Gas Chromatography

Gas chromatography (GC) is applicable to a wide range of compounds of interest to toxicologists, pharmaceutical and industrial chemists, environmentalists and clinicians. If a compound has sufficient volatility for its molecules to be in the gas or vapour phase at or below 400°, and does not decompose at these temperatures, then the compound can probably… read more »

Thin–layer Chromatography (TLC)

Thin–layer chromatography (TLC) is a widely used technique for the separation and identification of drugs. It is equally applicable to drugs in their pure state, to those extracted from pharmaceutical formulations, to illicitly manufactured materials and to biological samples. TLC as we know it today (see Fig 1) was established in the 1950s with the… read more »

Mass Spectrometry

A mass spectrometer works by generating charged molecules or molecular fragments either in a high vacuum or immediately before the sample enters the high–vacuum region. Instruments typically maintain vacuums of about 10–6 mmHg, since ionised molecules have to be generated in the gas phase to be able to manipulate them using magnetic or electrostatic fields. In… read more »

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Since its first observation in bulk phases in 1945, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, has become one of the foremost methods for molecular identification, for evaluating detailed molecular structures, for understanding conformations and for probing molecular dynamics. If the measurements are carried out under appropriate conditions, NMR spectroscopy can also be used for quantitative analysis…. read more »

Sidebar