Tag Archives : sampling

Sample handling

Sample handling is an important consideration during the pre-analytical phase. Unlike a clinical setting, where the time between sample collection and testing is often very short, significant delays a...

Sweat, Amniotic fluid, Breast milk sampling

Sweat Moisture loss via the skin and elimination of insensible (non-visible) sweat take place during normal breathing at a rate of 0.3–0.7L/day. Sensible sweat refers to perspiration that is activel...

Saliva sampling

Saliva or oral fluid can be collected non-invasively by expectoration, by aspiration, by vacuum or by saturation of an absorbent swab (Kidwell et al. 1998). Detection times are comparable to those in ...

Entomological specimens

The potential use of insects for detecting drugs and other toxins in decomposing tissues has been demonstrated and reviewed (Introna et al. 2001). If insects or larvae are collected from human remains...

Tissues sampling

When tissues are sampled they should be collected quickly and placed immediately into airtight containers. This is particularly important if volatiles or inhalants are suspected. Liver, kidney, brain,...

Cerebrospinal fluid sampling

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be collected either by lumbar puncture at the base of the spine using a hypodermic syringe or by withdrawal of cisternal fluid by puncturing the base of the neck. Althoug...

Injection sites sampling

Excision of skin and tissue (muscle) may be necessary in postmortem investigation of a suspected injection site. Typically a cube of muscle and skin is removed for this purpose. However, it is importa...

Urine sampling

In antemortem settings, a mid-stream urine sample is usually collected into a plastic container containing sodium fluoride as preservative. In some settings it may be necessary to take precautions aga...

Gastric contents sampling

Gastric content is a potentially valuable specimen for analysis in postmortem and clinical cases. Unabsorbed drug or tablet fragments in the gastric contents may provide valuable information concernin...

Bile sampling

Bile is generally aspirated from the gallbladder using a hypodermic syringe. It may be necessary to tie off the gallbladder prior to collection if contamination appears to be an issue. Bile should be ...