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Capillary Electrophoresis for Drug Analysis

In the second edition (1986) of this reference work, the index doesn’t even mention electrophoresis. Traditional electrophoretic methodologies, although they used simple and reliable equipment, were...

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

The ability to separate and analyse complex samples is integral to the biological and medical sciences. Classic column chromatography has evolved over the years, with chromatographic innovations intro...

Gas Chromatography

Gas chromatography (GC) is applicable to a wide range of compounds of interest to toxicologists, pharmaceutical and industrial chemists, environmentalists and clinicians. If a compound has sufficient ...

Thin–layer Chromatography (TLC)

Introduction Thin–layer chromatography (TLC) is a widely used technique for the separation and identification of drugs. It is equally applicable to drugs in their pure state, to those extracted from...

Mass Spectrometry

A mass spectrometer works by generating charged molecules or molecular fragments either in a high vacuum or immediately before the sample enters the high–vacuum region. Instruments typically maintai...

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Since its first observation in bulk phases in 1945, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, has become one of the foremost methods for molecular identification, for evaluating detailed molecula...

Raman Spectroscopy

Vibrational spectroscopy has been an integral tool for the identification and characterisation of drugs. When one thinks of vibrational spectroscopy, typically infrared (IR) techniques come to mind, n...

Near–infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy

The near–infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum extends from about 780 to 2500 nm (or 12800 to 4000 cm–1). It is therefore the part of the spectrum that exists between the red end...

Infra–red Spectroscopy

Infra–red (IR) spectroscopy is the study of the scattering, reflection, absorption or transmission of IR radiation in the spectral range 800 nm to 1 000 000 nm (0.8 to 1000 μm). In older liter...